Paul Andersen explains the major procedures in molecular biology. He starts with a brief description of Taq polymerase extracted from the hot pools of Yellowstone Park. He then uses the analogy of the ransom note to explain each of the processes that are required in genetic engineering. He explains how DNA is cut using restriction enzymes and glued using hydrogen bonds. He explains how gel electrophoresis can be used to sort DNA according to length and how the Polymerase Chain Reaction can be used to copy DNA. He finishes with a brief description of DNA sequencing.
Paul Andersen starts with a brief description of asexual and sexual reproduction. He explains how meiosis ensures variation in the next generation. He describes the important structures in the male and female reproductive system. He explains how the menstrual cycle ensure the success of the released ovum. He also shows how a zygote becomes a blastula, gastrula, embryo and fetus.
Paul Andersen explains how we perceive our environment using our sensory system. He starts with a brief discussion of action potentials and the nervous system. He shows that we many more than five senses. He goes into more detail to show how humans smell, see and hear.
Paul Andersen explains how organisms regulate their internal osmolarity or not. He starts with a brief description of osmosis and why it is important for animal cell to be surrounded by an isotonic solution. He then explains how freshwater and saltwater fish osmoregulate. He finally discussed the nephron within the kidney as an osmoregulatory organ. He explains how the loop of Henle sets up a gradient which is used to reclaim or remove water with the use of the antidiuretic hormone (or ADH).
Paul Andersen explains how organisms are able to regulate their internal body temperature (or not). He starts with a brief description conduction, convection, radiation and metabolism. He contrasts ectotherms and endotherms. He also explains how endotherms use negative feedback loops to regulate internal body temperature.
Paul Andersen explains the three types of muscle found in humans; striated, smooth and cardiac muscle. He explains how actin and myosin interact to contract the sarcomere in a muscle. The sliding filament theory explains how ATP and calcium are used to contract the z disks.
Paul Andersen explains the major elements in the endocrine system. He explains how glands produce hormones which target cells. He differentiates between water soluble and lipid soluble hormones. He then describes the hormones and actions of ten glands; pineal, anterior pituitary, posterior pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla, testes and ovaries.
Paul Andersen explains how your body protects itself from invading viruses and bacteria. He starts by describing the nonspecific immune responses of skin and inflammation. He then explains how we use antibodies to disrupt the function of antigens and mark them for destruction. He then explains both the homoral and cell-mediated immune response highlighting the importance of B and T lymphocytes. He finally describes the process of long term immunity.
Paul Andersen surveys the circulatory system in humans. He begins with a short discussion of open and closed circulatory systems and 2,3, and 4-chambered hearts. He describes the movement of blood through the human heart and the blood vessels. He discusses the major components of blood and the cause of a heart attack.
Paul Andersen starts this video with a description of the respiratory surface. He explains how worms, insects, fish and mammals take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. He then tours the major organs of the respiratory system; from the pharynx to the trachea, bronchus, bronchiole and alveoli. He also explains how oxygen is carried on the hemoglobin and how carbon dioxide is carried as bicarbonate.
Paul Andersen starts with a brief description of feeding methods. He then details all of the major parts within the human digestive system. This tour starts in the mouth, move down the esophagus, through the stomach, small investing, colon and rectum. He explains how all of the major macromolecules are digested and absorbed by the body.
Paul Andersen introduces Anatomy and Physiology in this podcast. He starts by describing how the form of an object fits the function. He then explains the themes of homeostasis and hierarchy. He describes the four major types of tissues; epithelial, muscle, nervous and connective. He finally surveys all of the major organ systems in the human body.
Paul Andersen introduces the concept of ethology and contrasts kinesis and taxis. He explains the importance of courtship rituals in fruit flies. He finally shows you how to use a choice chamber to study behavior in pillbugs.
Paul Andersen shows you how to use a sphygmomanometer to measure the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The the describes the elements of the laboratory portion. The temperature is gradually lowered and the respiration rate of a goldfish is measured.
Paul Andersen explains the two major portions of the molecular biology lab in AP Biology. He starts by discussing the process of transformation. He explains how you can use the pGLO plasmid to produce glowing E. coli bacteria. He then describes how you can use restriction enzymes and the process of gel electrophoresis to cut and separate DNA.
Paul Andersen explains how pigments can be separated using chromatography. He shows how you can calculate the Rf value for each pigment. He then explains how you can measure the rate of photosynthesis using leaf chads and water containing baking soda.