Paul Andersen reviews the major concepts within the fifth unit of the new AP Biology framework. He starts with a description of both DNA and DNA. He explains how DNA is copied during the S phase of mitosis. He explains how transcription produces a strand of mRNA that is translated at the ribosome into a polypeptide. He compares and contrasts mitosis and meiosis and differentiates between haploid and diploid cells. He finally discusses Mendelian and chromosomal genetics. He finishes the podcast with a discussing of operons and transcription factors.